Sovereigns of Scotland Since 1058

Sovereigns of Scotland Since 1058


SOVEREIGNS OF SCOTLAND SINCE 1058

MALCOLM III Canmore (ie Great Head, or Chief), King of Scots, son of King Duncan I (d 1040); b ca 1031; s to the throne after the defeat and death of his rivals Macbeth and Lulach, 17 March 1058; crowned at Scone, 25 April 1058; m 1st, ca 1059, Ingibiorg (d in or before 1069), daughter of Finn Arnesson of Vrjar, Jarl of Halland, and widow of Thorfinn II, Earl of Caithness; 2ndly, ca 1069, St Margaret (d at Edinburgh Castle, 16 November 1093; buried Dunfermline Abbey; canonised 1250), daughter of Edward the Atheling, and grand-daughter of Edmund Ironside, King of England; killed in battle at Alnwick, Northumberland, 13 November 1093; buried Tynemouth, re-buried Dunfermline Abbey); had issue, (by 1st m) three sons, (by 2nd m) six sons and two daughters; s by his brother,

DONALD BANE, King of Scots; b ca 1033; chosen King by the people of Scotland; deposed by his nephew Duncan, May 1094; regained the throne on the latter’s death, 12 November 1094; deposed and blinded by his nephew Edgar, October 1097; m an unknown wife; died at Rescobie, Forfarshire, 1099; buried Dunkeld, re-buried Iona; had issue, one daughter; s on his first deposition by his nephew, the eldest son of King Malcolm III,

DUNCAN II, King of Scots, b ca 1060; m ca 1090, Ethelreda (buried Dunfermline Abbey), daughter of Gospatrick, 1st Earl of Dunbar; killed at Mondynes, Kincardineshire, 12 November 1094; buried Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, one son; s by his uncle Donald Bane, who was again deposed and s by the seventh son of King Malcolm III (and fourth son of St Margaret),

EDGAR, King of Scots, b ca 1074; died unmarried at Edinburgh Castle, 8 January 1107; buried Dunfermline Abbey; s by his next brother,

ALEXANDER I The Fierce, King of Scots, b ca 1077; m Sibylla (d on the island of Loch Tay 12 or 13 July 1122; buried Dunfermline Abbey), illegitimate daughter of Henry I, King of England; dsp at Stirling 23 April 1124; buried Dunfermline Abbey; s by his next brother,

DAVID I The Saint, King of Scots; b ca 1080; crowned May 1124; m ca 1113/14, Matilda (d 1130/31; buried Scone), daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, and widow of Simon de St Liz; d at Carlisle, 24 May 1153; buried Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, two sons and two daughters; s by his grandson, the son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (dvp 12 June 1152),

MALCOLM IV The Maiden, King of Scots; b 20 March 1142; crowned Summer 1153; dunm at Jedburgh, 9 December 1165; buried Dunfermline Abbey; s by his brother,

WILLIAM I The Lion, King of Scots; b 1143; crowned 24 December 1165; m 5 September 1186, Ermengarde (d 11 February 1234; buried Balmerino Abbey), daughter of Richard, Vicomte de Beaumont; d at Stirling, 4 December 1214; buried Arbroath Abbey; had issue, one son and three daughters (and several illegitimate children, whose descendants were competitors for the crown in 1291); s by his only son,

ALEXANDER II, King of Scots; b at Haddington, 24 August 1198; crowned 6 December 1214; m 1st, 19 June 1221, Joan (d at York, 4 March 1238; buried Tarrant Crawford, Dorset), daughter of John, King of England; 2ndly, 15 May 1239, Marie (who m 2ndly, before 6 June 1257, John de Brienne, son of John de Brienne, King of Jerusalem, and was buried at Newbottle), 2nd daughter of Enguerrand III, Baron de Coucy; d at Kerrera, 8 July 1249; buried Melrose Abbey; had issue (by 2nd m), an only son,

ALEXANDER III, King of Scots; b at Roxburgh, 4 September 1241; crowned 13 July 1249; m 1st, 26 December 1251, Margaret (d at Cupar Castle, Fife, 26 February 1275; buried Dunfermline Abbey), daughter of Henry III, King of England; 2ndly, 14 October 1285, Yolande (who m 2ndly, May 1292, Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, and d 1322), daughter of Robert IV, Comte de Dreux; killed by a fall from his horse near Kinghorn, 19 March 1286; buried Dunfermline Abbey; had issue (by 1st m), two sons (who dvp) and one daughter (also dvp); s by his grand-daughter, the only daughter of his daughter Margaret and Eric II, King of Norway,

MARGARET, Queen of Scots, called The Maid of Norway; b in Norway before 9 April 1283; d at Orkney on her voyage to Scotland ca 26 September 1290; buried Bergen.

The death of Queen Margaret was followed by the First Interregnum, during which period thirteen competitors submitted their claims to the throne to the arbitration of King Edward I of England, who pronounced at Berwick, 17 November 1292, in favour of John Balliol, great-grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of Kings Malcolm IV and William the Lion, who ascended the throne as,

JOHN, King of Scotland (so styled); b 1249; crowned 30 November 1292; forced to abdicate at Brechin, 10 July 1296; m before 7 February 1281, Isabella, da of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey; d at Bailleul-en- Gouffern, Normandy, April 1313; probably buried in Church of St Waast there; had issue, two sons

The abdication of John was followed by the Second Interregnum during which period King Edward I of England assumed the government and attempted to treat Scotland as a conquered country. A long struggle for independence, led first by Sir William Wallace and then by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, ensued until the latter finally succeeded in establishing himself as,

ROBERT I The Bruce, King of Scots, great-great-grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon; b at Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex, 11 July 1274; chosen as one of the Guardians of the Kingdom at Peebles, 19 August 1299; crowned 27 March 1306; totally defeated the English at Bannockburn, 24 June 1314, thereby restoring independence; m 1st, ca 1295, Isabella, daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar; 2ndly, 1302, Elizabeth (d at Cullen 26 October 1327; buried Dunfermline Abbey), daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster; d at Cardross, Dumbartonshire, 7 June 1329; buried Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, (by 1st m) one daughter, (by 2nd m) two sons and two daughters; s by his only surviving son,

DAVID II, King of Scots; b at Dunfermline, 5 March 1324; crowned 24 November 1331; absent in France 1334-41; prisoner in England 1346-57; m 1st, 17 July 1328, Joan, crowned with him (d at Hertford, 7 September 1362; buried Grey Friars Church, London), younger daughter of Edward II, King of England; 2ndly, ca 20 February 1364 (m diss ca 20 March 1370), Margaret (d soon after 31 January 1375), daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond, and widow of Sir John Logie of that Ilk; dsp at Edinburgh Castle, 22 February 1371; buried Holyrood Abbey; s by the son of his half-sister Marjorie and her husband Walter, High Steward of Scotland,

ROBERT II, King of Scots; b at Paisley, 2 March 1316; declared by Parliament heir to the crown in default of male issue of his maternal grandfather King Robert I, 3 December 1318; crowned 26 March 1371; m 1st (dispensation dated 22 November 1347), Elizabeth (d before 1355), daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan; 2ndly (dispensation dated 2 May 1355), Euphemia, crowned 1372 (d 1387), daughter of Hugh, 4th Earl of Ross, and widow of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray; d at Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, 19 April 1390; buried Scone Abbey; had issue, (by 1st m) four sons and five daughters, (by 2nd m) two sons and two daughters; s by his elder son,

ROBERT III, King of Scots (originally named John); b ca 1337 (and legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents); declared by Parliament heir to the crown, 27 March 1371; crowned 14 August 1390; m ca 1366-67, Annabella, crowned 15 August 1390 (d at Scone autumn 1401; buried Dunfermline Abbey), daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall; d at Dundonald Castle, 4 April 1406; buried Paisley Abbey; had issue, three sons and four daughters; s by his youngest, but only surviving, son,

JAMES I, King of Scots; b at Dunfermline December 1394; prisoner in England 1406-24; crowned 21 May 1424; m 2 February 1424, Lady Joan Beaufort, crowned with him (who m 2ndly, 1439, Sir James Stewart, “the Black Knight of Lorne”, and d at Dunbar Castle, 15 July 1445; buried Perth), daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, KG (half-brother of Henry IV, King of England); assassinated at Perth by his uncle Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, and others 21 February 1437; buried Carthusian Church, Perth; had issue, two sons and six daughters; s by his younger (twin), but only surviving, son,

JAMES II, King of Scots, called “James of the Fiery Face” from a birthmark on his cheek; b at Holyrood, 16 October 1430; crowned 25 March 1437; m 3 July 1449, Marie, crowned the same day (d at Edinburgh, 1 December 1463; buried Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, Edinburgh), only daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres; killed by the accidental bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle, 3 August 1460; buried Holyrood Abbey; had issue, four sons and two daughters; s by his elder son,

JAMES III, King of Scots; b at St Andrews Castle, May 1452 (not at Stirling 10 July 1451 as formerly believed); crowned 10 August 1460; m 13 July 1469, Margaret, crowned the same day (d at Stirling, 14 July 1486; buried Cambuskenneth Abbey), only daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark; murdered after the battle of Sauchieburn at Milltown, near Bannockburn, 11 June 1488; buried Cambuskenneth Abbey; had issue, three sons; s by his  son,

JAMES IV of the Iron Belt, King of Scots; b 17 March 1473; crowned 26 June 1488; m 8 August 1503, Margaret, crowned the same day (who m 2ndly, 6 August 1514 (m diss 1527), Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus; 3rdly, 1527, Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven, and d at Methven Castle, 18 October 1541; buried Perth),  daughter of Henry VII, King of England; killed at the Battle of Flodden, 9 September 1513; buried Shene Abbey, Surrey; had issue, four sons and two daughters; s by his third, but eldest surviving, son,

JAMES V, King of Scots; b at Linlithgow, 10 April 1512; crowned 21 September 1513: m 1st, 1 January 1537. Madeleine (d at Holyrood, 7 July 1537; buried Holyrood Abbey), third daughter of Francis I, King of France: 2ndly, 12 June 1538, Marie, crowned 22 February 1540, Queen Regent of Scotland 1554-60 (d at Edinburgh Castle, 10 June 1560; buried Rheims Cathedral), daughter of Claude I de Lorraine, Duke of Guise, and widow of Louis II, Duke of Longueville; d at Falkland Castle, 14 December 1542, buried Holyrood Abbey; had issue, (by 2nd m) two sons (who dvp) and one daughter; s by his only daughter,

MARY, Queen of Scots; b at Linlithgow, 7 or 8 December 1542; crowned 9 September 1543; forced to abdicate 24 July 1567; prisoner in England 1568-87; m 1st, 24 April 1558, Francis II, King of France (d at Orleans 5 December 1560); 2ndly, 29 July 1565, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, cr Duke of Albany, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch 15 May 1565, proclaimed King 28 July 1565 (d (murdered) at Kirk o Field, Edinburgh, 10 February 1567), 2nd son of Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus and Queen Margaret, widow of King James IV; 3rdly, 15 May 1567, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, cr Duke of Orkney 12 May 1567, Great Admiral of Scotland (d at Draxholm, Norway, 14 April 1578); beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, 8 February 1587; buried Peterborough Cathedral, re-buried Westminster Abbey; s on her abdication by her only son (by her 2nd m),

JAMES VI (Charles James), King of Scots, who s Queen Elizabeth I as King of England 1603 (see Sovereigns of England).

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