Sovereigns of Scotland Since 1058

Sovereigns of Scotland Since 1058


sovereigns of SCOTLAND since 1058


MALCOLM III Canmore (ie Great Head, or Chief), King of Scots, son of King Duncan I (d 1040); b ca 1031; s to the throne after the defeat and death of his rivals Macbeth and Lulach 17 March 1058; c at Scone 25 April 1058; m 1st, ca 1059, Ingibiorg (d in or before 1069), da of Finn Arnesson of Vrjar, Jarl of Halland, and widow of Thorfinn II, Earl of Caithness; 2ndly, ca 1069, St Margaret (d at Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093; bur Dunfermline Abbey; canonized 1250), el da of Edward the Atheling, and grand-da of Edmund Ironside, King of England; k in battle at Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093; bur Tynemouth, re-bur Dunfermline Abbey); had issue, (by 1st m) 3 sons, (by 2nd m) 6 sons and 2 das; s by his brother,

DONALD BANE, King of Scots; b ca 1033; chosen King by the people of Scotland; deposed by his nephew Duncan May 1094; regained the throne on the latter’s death 12 Nov 1094; deposed and blinded by his nephew Edgar Oct 1097; m an unknown wife; d at Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099; bur Dunkeld, re-bur Iona; had issue, one da; s on his first deposition by his nephew, the el son of King Malcolm III,

DUNCAN II, King of Scots, b ca 1060; m ca 1090, Ethelreda (bur Dunfermline Abbey), da of Gospatrick, 1st Earl of Dunbar; k at Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094; bur Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, one son; s by his uncle Donald Bane, who was again deposed and s by the 7th son of King Malcolm III (and 4th son of St Margaret),

EDGAR, King of Scots, b ca 1074; dunm at Edinburgh Castle 8 Jan 1107; bur Dunfermline Abbey; s by his next brother,

ALEXANDER I The Fierce, King of Scots, b ca 1077; m Sibylla (d on the island of Loch Tay 12 or 13 July 1122; bur Dunfermline Abbey), illegitimate da of Henry I, King of England; dsp at Stirling 23 April 1124; bur Dunfermline Abbey; s by his next brother,

DAVID I The Saint, King of Scots; b ca 1080; c May 1124; m ca 1113/14, Matilda (d 1130/31; bur Scone), da and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, and widow of Simon de St Liz; d at Carlisle 24 May 1153; bur Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, 2 sons and 2 das; s by his grandson, the son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (dvp 12 June 1152),

MALCOLM IV The Maiden, King of Scots; b 20 March 1142; c Summer 1153; dunm at Jedburgh 9 Dec 1165; bur Dunfermline Abbey; s by his brother,

WILLIAM I The Lion, King of Scots; b 1143; c 24 Dec 1165; m 5 Sept 1186, Ermengarde (d 11 Feb 1234; bur Balmerino Abbey), da of Richard, Vicomte de Beaumont; d at Stirling 4 Dec 1214; bur Arbroath Abbey; had issue, 1 son and 3 das (and several illegitimate children, whose descendants were competitors for the crown in 1291); s by his only son,

ALEXANDER II, King of Scots; b at Haddington 24 Aug 1198; c 6 Dec 1214; m 1st, 19 June 1221, Joan (d at York 4 March 1238; bur Tarrant Crawford, Dorset), el da of John, King of England; 2ndly, 15 May 1239, Marie (who m 2ndly, before 6 June 1257, John de Brienne, son of John de Brienne, King of Jerusalem, and was bur at Newbottle), 2nd da of Enguerrand III, Baron de Coucy; d at Kerrera 8 July 1249; bur Melrose Abbey; had issue (by 2nd m), an only son,

ALEXANDER III, King of Scots; b at Roxburgh 4 Sept 1241; c 13 July 1249; m 1st, 26 Dec 1251, Margaret (d at Cupar Castle, Fife 26 Feb 1275; bur Dunfermline Abbey), el da of Henry III, King of England; 2ndly, 14 Oct 1285, Yolande (who m 2ndly, May 1292, Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, and d 1322), da of Robert IV, Comte de Dreux; k by a fall from his horse near Kinghorn 19 March 1286; bur Dunfermline Abbey; had issue (by 1st m), 2 sons (who dvp) and 1 da (also dvp); s by his grand-da, the only da of his da Margaret and Eric II, King of Norway,

MARGARET, Queen of Scots, called The Maid of Norway; b in Norway before 9 April 1283; d at Orkney on her voyage to Scotland ca 26 Sept 1290; bur Bergen.

The death of Queen Margaret was followed by the First Interregnum, during which thirteen competitors submitted their claims to the throne to the arbitration of King Edward I of England, who pronounced at Berwick 17 Nov 1292 in favour of John Balliol, gt-grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon, yr brother of Kings Malcolm IV and William the Lion, who ascended the throne as,

JOHN, King of Scotland (so styled); b 1249; c 30 Nov 1292; forced to abdicate at Brechin 10 July 1296; m before 7 Feb 1281, Isabella, da of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey; d at Bailleul-en- Gouffern, Normandy April 1313; probably bur in Church of St Waast there; had issue, 2 sons

The abdication of John was followed by the Second Interregnum during which King Edward I of England assumed the government and attempted to treat Scotland as a conquered country. A long struggle for independence led first by Sir William Wallace and then by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, ensued until the latter finally succeeded in establishing himself as,

ROBERT I The Bruce, King of Scots, gt-gt-grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon; b at Writtle, nr Chelmsford, Essex 11 July 1274; chosen one of the Guardians of the Kingdom at Peebles 19 Aug 1299; c 27 March 1306; totally defeated the English at Bannockburn 24 June 1314, thereby restoring independence; m 1st, ca 1295, Isabella, da of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar; 2ndly, 1302, Elizabeth (d at Cullen 26 Oct 1327; bur Dunfermline Abbey), da of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster; d at Cardross, Dumbartonshire 7 June 1329; bur Dunfermline Abbey; had issue, (by 1st m) 1 da, (by 2nd m) 2 sons and 2 das; s by his only surv son,

DAVID II, King of Scots; b at Dunfermline 5 March 1324; c 24 Nov 1331; absent in France 1334-41; prisoner in England 1346-57; m 1st, 17 July 1328, Joan, c with him (d at Hertford 7 Sept 1362; bur Grey Friars Church, London), yr da of Edward II, King of England; 2ndly, ca 20 Feb 1364 (m diss ca 20 March 1370), Margaret (d soon after 31 Jan 1375), da of Sir Malcolm Drummond, and widow of Sir John Logie of that Ilk; dsp at Edinburgh Castle 22 Feb 1371; bur Holyrood Abbey; s by the son of his half-sister Marjorie and her husband Walter, High Steward of Scotland,

ROBERT II, King of Scots; b at Paisley 2 March 1316; declared by Parliament heir to the crown in default of male issue of his maternal grandfather King Robert I 3 Dec 1318; c 26 March 1371; m 1st (dispensation dated 22 Nov 1347), Elizabeth (d before 1355), da of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan; 2ndly (dispensation dated 2 May 1355), Euphemia, c 1372 (d 1387), da of Hugh, 4th Earl of Ross, and widow of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray; d at Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire 19 April 1390; bur Scone Abbey; had issue, (by 1st m) 4 sons and 5 das, (by 2nd m) 2 sons and 2 das; s by his el son,

ROBERT III, King of Scots (originally named John); b ca 1337 (and legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents); declared by Parliament heir to the crown 27 March 1371; c 14 Aug 1390; m ca 1366-67, Annabella, c 15 Aug 1390 (d at Scone autumn 1401; bur Dunfermline Abbey), da of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall; d at Dundonald Castle 4 April 1406; bur Paisley Abbey; had issue, 3 sons and 4 das; s by his yst, but only surv, son,

JAMES I, King of Scots; b at Dunfermline Dec 1394; prisoner in England 1406-24; c 21 May 1424; m 2 Feb 1424, Lady Joan Beaufort, c with him (who m 2ndly, 1439, Sir James Stewart, “the Black Knight of Lorne”, and d at Dunbar Castle 15 July 1445; bur Perth), el da of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, KG (half-brother of Henry IV, King of England); assassinated at Perth by his uncle Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl and others 21 Feb 1437; bur Carthusian Church, Perth; had issue, 2 sons and 6 das; s by his yr (twin), but only surv, son,

JAMES II, King of Scots, called “James of the Fiery Face” from a birthmark on his cheek; b at Holyrood 16 Oct 1430; c 25 March 1437; m 3 July 1449, Marie, c the same day (d at Edinburgh 1 Dec 1463; bur Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, Edinburgh), only da of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres; k by the accidental bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle 3 Aug 1460; bur Holyrood Abbey; had issue, 4 sons and 2 das; s by his el son,

JAMES III, King of Scots; b at St Andrews Castle May 1452 (not at Stirling 10 July 1451 as formerly believed); c 10 Aug 1460; m 13 July 1469, Margaret, c the same day (d at Stirling 14 July 1486; bur Cambuskenneth Abbey), only da of Christian I, King of Denmark; murdered after the battle of Sauchieburn at Milltown, nr Bannockburn 11 June 1488; bur Cambuskenneth Abbey; had issue, 3 sons; s by his el son,

JAMES IV of the Iron Belt, King of Scots; b 17 March 1473; c 26 June 1488; m 8 Aug 1503, Margaret, c the same day (who m 2ndly, 6 Aug 1514 (m diss 1527), Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus; 3rdly, 1527, Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven, and d at Methven Castle 18 Oct 1541; bur Perth), el da of Henry VII, King of England; k at the Battle of Flodden 9 Sept 1513; bur Shene Abbey, Surrey; had issue, 4 sons and 2 das; s by his 3rd, but el surv, son,

JAMES V, King of Scots; b at Linlithgow 10 April 1512; c 21 Sept 1513: m 1st, 1 Jan 1537. Madeleine (d at Holyrood 7 July 1537; bur Holyrood Abbey), 3rd da of Francis I, King of France: 2ndly, 12 June 1538, Marie, c 22 Feb 1540, Queen Regent of Scotland 1554-60 (d at Edinburgh Castle 10 June 1560; bur Rheims Cathedral), da of Claude I de Lorraine, Duke of Guise, and widow of Louis II, Duke of Longueville; d at Falkland Castle 14 Dec 1542, bur Holyrood Abbey; had issue, (by 2nd m) 2 sons (who dvp) and 1 da; s by his only da,

MARY, Queen of Scots; b at Linlithgow 7 or 8 Dec 1542; c 9 Sept 1543; forced to abdicate 24 July 1567; prisoner in England 1568-87; m 1st, 24 April 1558, Francis II, King of France (d at Orleans 5 Dec 1560); 2ndly, 29 July 1565, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, cr Duke of Albany, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch 15 May 1565, proclaimed King 28 July 1565 (d (murdered) at Kirk o Field, Edinburgh 10 Feb 1567), 2nd son of Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, by his wife Margaret, da of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus and Queen Margaret, widow of King James IV; 3rdly, 15 May 1567, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, cr Duke of Orkney 12 May 1567, Great Adm of Scotland (d at Draxholm, Norway 14 April 1578); beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, Northants 8 Feb 1587; bur Peterborough Cathedral, re-bur Westminster Abbey; s on her abdication by her only son (by her 2nd m),

JAMES VI (Charles James), King of Scots, who s Queen Elizabeth I as King of England 1603 (see SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND, etc).

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